Peppers

Carolina Reaper

1,500,000 - 2,200,000 Scovilles
The Carolina Reaper officially became the world's hottest chili pepper as of November 14, 2013 according to Guinness World Records.  This pepper is a crossbreed created by Ed Currie of The Puckerbutt Pepper Company.  So far tracking down the peppers that it is bred from has been difficult, but based on it's visual characteristics it seems that it's clearly derived from a Trinidad Scorpion Pepper.

Trinidad Moruga Scorpion

Derived from: Trinidad Scorpion
2,010,000 Scovilles
Trinidad Scorpion Peppers are referred to as "Scorpion" peppers because the pointed end of the pepper is said to resemble a scorpion's stinger. Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Peppers are native to the district of Moruga in Trinidad. The Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Pepper has a broad and roundish pod that comes to a tip and a rough outer skin.

Trinidad Scorpion "Butch T" Pepper

Derived from: Trinidad Scorpion
1,460,000 Scovilles
Trinidad Scorpion Peppers are referred to as "Scorpion" peppers because the pointed end of the pepper is said to resemble a scorpion's stinger. The Trinidad Scorpion Butch T variety pepper was formerly ranked as the hottest pepper in the world, but lost that tile to the Trinidad Moruga Scorpion as of February 2012. It was propagated by Butch Taylor of Zydeco Hot Sauce and grown by the Chilli Factory.

Naga Viper

Derived from: Three-way hybrid of Naga Morich, Bhut Jolokia, and Trinidad Scorpion
1,380,000 Scovilles
The Naga Viper was created in England by chilli farmer Gerald Fowler of The Chilli Pepper Company. It is an unstable three-way hybrid produced from the Naga Morich, the Bhut Jolokia and the Trinidad Scorpion. Due to its hybrid nature, it is unable to produce offspring exactly like the parent.

Bhut Jolokia

a.k.a. Naga Jolokia, Ghost Pepper
800,000 - 1,001,000 Scovilles
The Bhut Jolokia is cultivated in the Nagaland and Assam region of northeastern India and parts of neighboring Bangladesh. This chili pepper is around 125 times hotter than a Jalapeno. The Bhut Jolokia Pepper has a somewhat elogated pod and the skin is rough.

Red Savina Pepper

Derived from: Habanero Pepper
200,000 - 577,000 Scovilles
Red Savina Peppers are a variety of Habanero that has been selectively bred and cultivated over time to achieve a hotter and heavier fruit.

Habanero Pepper

100,000 - 350,000 Scovilles
Habanero peppers are extremely hot.  They are green when unripened and color as they mature.  Common colors are orange and red.  The Habanero is often compared to the Scotch bonnet pepper since they are varieties of the same species.  However, they have different pod types with the Habanero being more slender.  Also, the Scotch Bonnet is typically a bit sweeter than the Habanero.

Scotch Bonnet

a.k.a. Boabs Bonnet, Scotty Bons, Bonney peppers, Caribbean Red Peppers
100,000 - 350,000 Scovilles
Scotch Bonnet Peppers are often mistaken for Habanero Peppers, though they are sweeter in flavor and stouter in shape.  While most Scotch Bonnets are extremely hot with a heat rating of 100,000–350,000 Scoville Units, there are completely sweet varieties of Scotch Bonnet grown on some of the Caribbean islands, called Cachucha peppers.  Scotch Bonnets are one of the primary ingredients that give Jerk dishes their unique flavor.

Cayenne Chile Pepper

a.k.a. Guinea Spice, Cow-Horn Pepper, Aleva, Bird Pepper, Red Pepper
30,000 - 50,000 Scovilles
Cayenne Pepper is a hot chili pepper used to flavor dishes. Cayenne chiles are generally sold dried either whole, crushed as red pepper flakes, or in a ground powder form.  Cayenne Peppers remain green on the plant even when mature; once picked, it may or may not turn red. It is normally eaten red, but also eaten while still green.

Tabasco Pepper

30,000 - 50,000 Scovilles
Tabasco Peppers are named after the Mexican state of Tabasco and are used in the well known Tabasco Sauce.  They are the only pepper variety whose fruits are "juicy" meaning they are not dry and hollow on the inside.  Until recently, all of the peppers used to make Tabasco sauce were grown on Avery Island, Louisiana. While a small portion of the crop is still grown on the island, the bulk of the crop is now grown in Central and South America, where the weather and the availability of more farmland allow a more predictable and larger year-round supply of peppers.

Serrano Pepper

10,000 - 25,000 Scovilles
Serrano Peppers have a crisp, bright, and biting flavor which is notably hotter than the jalapeño pepper. They are often eaten raw.  Serrano peppers are a particularly fleshy pepper compared to others and therefore are commonly used in making pico de gallo, and salsa.

Jalapeno Pepper

2,500 - 10,000 Scovilles
Jalapeno Peppers are likely the world's most popular chili peppers. They range in heat from medium to hot depending on cultivation. If allowed to fully ripen they turn red.

Chipotle Pepper

2,500 - 10,000 Scovilles
Chipotle Peppers are smoked, dried jalapenos (typically the ripened jalapeno).  They are ground into powder for seasoning in chili powders and also used in sauces for their delicious smokey taste.

Poblano Chili Pepper

1,000 - 2,000 Scovilles
Poblano Peppers are a mild chili pepper originating in the state of Puebla, Mexico. When dried, it is called an Ancho Chile (meaning wide chile). It is used to make the popular dish "Chile Relleno". 

Ancho Chili Pepper

1,000 - 2,000 Scovilles
Ancho Chili is the dried form of the Poblano Chili Pepper. The ripened red poblano is significantly hotter and more flavorful than the less ripe, green poblano.  The dried Ancho Chili is commonly used in Mole Sauces.

Chilaca Pepper

a.k.a. Pasilla Pepper (when dried)
250 - 3,999 Scovilles
Chilaca Peppers are a mild to medium-hot, rich-flavored chile.  When dried they are called Pasilla Peppers. They are most commonly used in their dried form.

Pasilla Chili Pepper

a.k.a. Chilaca Pepper (when fresh), Chile Negro
250 - 3,999 Scovilles
Pasilla Peppers are dried Chilaca Peppers and therefore commonly used in sauces. However, in the United States producers and grocers often incorrectly use 'pasilla' to describe the poblano, a different, wider variety of pepper.

Pimento

a.k.a. Pimiento Pepper, Cherry Pepper
100 - 500 Scovilles
Pimiento Peppers are mild and sweet with a few varieties being a bit hotter.  They are often served pickled under the name Cherry Peppers, but the most common use is the ubiquitous red center stuffing found in many olives.

Banana Pepper

a.k.a. Yellow Wax Pepper, Banana Chili
0 - 500 Scovilles
Banana Peppers contain minimal capsicum and have a mild, sweet taste. While not very hot, the Banana Pepper's hotness depends on the maturity of the pepper with ripe peppers being sweeter.  It is often sold as pickled slices.

Bell Pepper

a.k.a. Sweet Pepper
0 Scovilles
Bell Peppers have no capsicum and therefore no "heat".  There is one exception to this which is the hybrid variety called Mexibelle, which does contain a moderate level of capsaicin, and is therefore, somewhat hot.  It has a crisp texture with a mild sweet flavor.